Persistent triboelectrification-induced electroluminescence (TIEL) is highly desirable to break the constraints in the transient-emitting behavior of existing TIEL technologies as it addresses the hindrance caused by incomplete information in optical communication. In this work, a novel self-powered persistent TIEL material (SP-PTM) has been created for the first time, by incorporating the long-afterglow phosphors SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ (SAOED) in the material design. It was found that the blue-green transient TIEL derived from ZnS:Cu, Al serves as a reliable excitation source to trigger the persistent photoluminescence (PL) of SAOED. Notably, the aligned dipole moment formed along the vertical direction in the bottom ferroelectric ceramics layer acts as an “optical antenna” to promote variation in the electric field of the upper luminescent layer. Accordingly, the SP-PTM exhibits intense and persistent TIEL for about 10 s in the absence of a continuous power supply. Due to such unique TIEL afterglow behavior, the SP-PTM is applicable in many fields, such as user identification and multi-mode anti-counterfeiting. The SP-PTM proposed in this work not only represents a breakthrough in TIEL materials due to its recording capability and versatile responsivity but also contributes a new strategy to the development of high-performance mechanical-light energy-conversion systems, which may inspire various functional applications.